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What Is Biotechnology ?

The most sought-after aim of the world today is achieving an economic growth fast enough to improve the life and living conditions of our teaming millions. The developed world has already got the required living standard but they still want further improvement. But we require high technology with some new inputs which are really cheap and effective enough to meet the prevailing requirements along with future aspirations of the countries like India. Among the ‘new inputs’ comes biotechnology, which is a new technique aiming at revolutionizing different walks of life such as medicine, industry, agriculture, animal husbandry, environment and pollution control.

An Article And Essay On Biotechnology : How It Can Affect Our Daily Life?

BiotechnologyMan has been exploiting biotechnology for thousands of years to “, make bread, to foment alcohol, to produce cheese and for a shorter periods to treat sewage. But the term biotechnology was coined during the late 1970s. It is a multi-disciplinary subject evaluated from the integrated use of life science, chemical sciences and engineering sciences. As elegant and expedient definition of biotechnology is the manipulation of living organisms and biological processes to provide useful products, to manufacturing industries. It is the technological exploitation and control of biological systems and micro-organism or their components to provide certain goods and services. Biotechnology takes the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents.

These biological agents are enzymes, micro-organisms, unicellular or multi-cellular plants and animals. Now these biological. agents are again being modified through genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technique, to suit to the needs of the mankind. Biotechnology includes various types of technologies, namely, Recombinant DNA Technology for Genetic Engineering, protoplast fusion, Hybridoma technology, Cell Culture, Tissue Culture, Germplasm development, Embryo transfer technology, Enzyme and protein engineering, Fermentation, Bioconversion and Immobilization of cells and cellular products. Biotechnology has immense potential for use in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, health, chemical industry, food industry, pollution control and environment.

The modern world has laid its future hopes on this technology for subsistence and all- round progress and development. Residents of this planet are facing many problems and it is hoped that if the same progress be followed in the approach towards curtailing the prevailing conditions, then it will go on enhancing further. First and for most is the problem of population, we have to fetter it. Food consumption is far below the required s standard in developing countries. Environmental quality is deteriorating every fraction of the time known. Agricultural soil is also getting deteriorated widely. Energy resources are going away from our treasury.

So, we need non-fuel minerals for the purpose. Mankind is facing new damages to human health through microbial arid non-microbial diseases like cancer and AIDS. Biotechnology has promised some alternatives or solutions to the problems mentioned about. Probable applications of biotechnology include the development of better and cheaper drugs, better ant fertility agents, hormone production, immunologist kits, vaccines for cancer, gene probe and gene therapy. Monodonal antibodies MABs are used in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and cancer in connection of drug overdose, treatment of cancer. Different pharmaceuticals like interferon insulin and other hormones, antibiotics, human virokinose, etc., have been produced by recombinant DNA Technology.

Production of interferon which is a wonder protein’ drug for cancer and viral disease and human insulin which is a hormone Biotechnologyrequired to rectify diabetes has been revolution through biotechnological applications. A hormone, somatostatin 5 mg of which was produced from half a million sheep brains up now he produced from a 9-litre bacterial culture. Gene therapy and development of multi-disease vaccines are the other areas where biotechnology is expected to yield wonder. It might be possible to rectify .he hereditary diseases through gene therapy with the recent achievement in laboratory animals, i.e., producing large size mice by transfer of growth hormone gene, the possibilities of eugenic creating desired humans are seen bright. What is considered an imagination today might turn out-to be reality in not too distant future.

Biotechnology has promised some alternatives 

Man derives food mainly from plant and animal resources. Biotechnology holds a tremendous potential in improving these resources in various ways. Improvement of crop plants through genetic manipulation would go a long way in meeting the escalating necessities of food. Some useful traits like herbicide, drought, frost and pest resistances might be transferred to important crop species already been made in transforming the frost resistance genes into crop plants. Work is .being done on increasing growth rate, photosynthetic ability and nitrogen fixation in plants through genetic tools of biotechnology. “The production of microbial proteins has been practiced since World War I, when Debruch in Berlin developed Drewer’s yeast on a large-scale.

The cells were mainly incorporated into soups and sausages. It is known as SCP (Single Cell Protein). It is a potential protein source’ food for humans and animals. For human use, microbes used are primarily, ‘Saccharomyces Cerevisiae’ and ‘Condida Utilis’, Further, biotechnology has market impact in the sweetener industry, Baker’s yeast wine, beer, sour hunch bread, yoghurt, cheese, vinegar are some of the foods and beverages obtained from micro-organisms. Recently a protein that increases milk production in dairy cows and improves feed utilization has been produced with the help of genetic engines ring techniques in USA. This protein is expected to be commercialized in a couple of years to increase the economy and efficiency of dairy farming all over the world.

BiotechnologyThe variety of toxic and non-toxic wastes expelled every-day by industries are posing serious threat to human life through environmental pollution. One of the potent methods of eliminating these wastes is through biodegradation. A superbug, Pseudomonas Putida, created by an Indian Scientist in USA, Dr. A. Chakravarty, through such techniques can scavenge oil in sea. Many other such organisms could be created to degrade and detoxify a variety of harmful chemicals in the environment. The communicable diseases can be prevents d through vector-control. Biogas generation from wastes has proved its utility in various ways. Sewage treatment is carried out by aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms.

The effluent from yeast oil and cider breweries, from dairies and from potato starch factory can be efficiently processed by an anaerobic process in which the active biological compound is recycled and a hitch produces less residual sludge as well as less offensive odors. This would avoid the possible ill-effects on human health had such animal and plant species as are useful to mankind. Production of fine chemicals from agricultural wastes through microbial processes, plant cells, animal cells, production of antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, biofuel employing microbial transformation and preservation of industrial products from spoilage are some of the major applications of biotechnology in industry.

The existing petrochemicals and other sources of energy are depleting fast with the advancement of modern world. The solution to this problem seems to com I through biotechnology. Processes have been developed for generating liquid and gaseous biofuels in recent years. Ethanol among 1 quid and methane among gaseous (biogas) biofuels constitute important alternatives to coal, wood, oil petroleum and other existing sources of energy. Various waste materials are being used for bioconverting them into biofuels by such micro-organisms. Sugarcane, banana, vegetable crops and orchids have already been commercially produced using tissue culture in India. And in the time to come tissue culture technology will also be applied for bamboo, mustard; rice, sandalwood and other agricultural fields.

From nutritional point of view, plant proteins suffer from amino acid imbalances. By genetic engineering, it may be possible to correct the imbalance of amino acid profiles in seed proteins. The process of biological nitrogen fixation is carried out by free living and symbiotic micro-organisms. The symbiotic micro- organisms form association with other plants .to fix nitrogen’. By the presence of these micro-organisms in the root nodules of leguminous, plants result in proved grain yield. In the veterinary field, bio technological applications include utilization of hybridism technology for animal healthcare, production of sage and efficient vaccines for infectious diseases, embryo transfer, development of novel techniques in animal breeding through genetic engineering at gameter orgdnod level transgenic animals, production of fish growth hormone by DNA technology.ere, And in animals] t provides a cheap, fast and simple method with few side effects.

Th s technique will have an impact on efforts to reduce the population of low ‘grade genetic stock of little economic value. The application of biotechnology in the area of animal husbandry in increasing production efficiency, through manipulation and control of physiology and for promoting better healthcare through bio-pharmaceuticals is worth m ting. Embryo transfer technology will enhance animal production in the years to come. It would also boost animal productivity by improved new feeds and fodder through bio-conversion processes, tissue culture and other genetic techniques respectively. Along with this a number of non-conventional food constituents like single cell proteins, sweeteners, edible oils, etc., and food additives like vitamins , amino acids, etc., have been and can be generated through biotechnological processes. It can also be used for better processing of food.

Today among the most pressing problems faced by our country is the population explosion. ‘What we have got to do is to adopt family planning. Towards this Government opened up numerous programmes with different techniques. Now a novice programme called “Immunological Approach to fertility control” have been devised. The objectives of this project are to develop safest, cost- effective, efficacious, long-lasting and reversible contraceptive vaccines using immunological approaches. The National Institute of Immunology has developed a candidate vaccine for the failure of pregnancy.

The powerful potential implicit in these revolutionary techniques has focused everyone’s attention on the biotechnology industry and significant investments have been made in this area since the early eighties. The impact is being realized with a range of products and processes being introduced in such areas as agriculture, forestry, horticulture, medicine, ‘health,’ chemical industry, food industry, pollution control and environment. There is a promise of further technological progress, but the question marks about the sustainability of this progress in view of the fragility of our environment and biological heritage call for novel technological solutions in an eco-friendly manner.So this was an essay on biotechnology.


Leprosy

What is Leprosy?

Leprosy is an infectious disease characterized by disfiguring skin lesions, peripheral nerve damage, and progressive debilitation.

Leprosy is common in many countries in the world, and in temperate, tropical, and subtropical climates. Approximately 100 cases per year are diagnosed in the U.S. Most cases are limited to the South, California, Hawaii, and U.S. island possessions.

Leprosy is also called Hansen's disease.

What Causes Leprosy?

Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacteriumleprae.

Symptoms of Leprosy

The most common symptoms of leprosy are:

skin lesions that have decreased sensation to touch, heat, or pain and are are lighter than your normal skin color

skin lesions that do not heal after several weeks to months

numbness or absent sensation in the hands and arms, or feet and legs

muscle weakness

How is Leprosy Transmitted?

Leprosy is a difficult disease to transmit and has a long incubation period. Children are more susceptible than adults to contracting the disease.

Types of Leprosy

There are two main types of leprosy: tuberculoid and lepromatous. Both tyes of leprosy produce lesions on the skin, but the lepromatous form is most severe, producing large disfiguring nodules.

Can Leprosy be Treated?

Yes. Treatments are aimed to eliminate the microorganism that causes leprosy and to reduce the symptoms. Common treatments include:

Dapsone

Rifampin

Clofazimine

Ethionamide

Aspirin

Prednisone

Thalidomide

Complications of Leprosy

Leprosy can eventually cause cosmetic disfigurement, nerve damage in the extremities, sensory loss in the skin and muscle weakness. People with long-term leprosy may lose the use of their hands or feet due to repeated injury resulting from lack of sensation.